Acid Test: LSD, Ecstasy, and the Power to Heal by Tom Shroder is a book that examines the history, government restrictions, and clinical uses of hallucinogens. Shroder is an award winning journalist with many years as a writer and editor for the Washington Post. He is the author and co-author of several books many covering current events.
I picked this book up looking for a traditional nonfiction. Instead, it written as narrative nonfiction. This is an apparently popular way of telling factual stories in a form that reads like nonfiction. Katherine Boo won the National Book Award with her Behind the Beautiful Forevers written in the same manner. Although this format has its fans, many nonfiction readers find it frustrating because none of the information can really be verified because there are no citations, notes, or bibliographies. This style of writing seems to be a favorite of reporters and investigative journalist who usually obtain first hand information and experiences for their writing. In this case, I am pretty sure the Shroder did not witness all the events in the book. If he interviewed the participants, he should have noted in the standard format. This is all standard procedure taught in college and grad school. Document your work.
I do understand that writers have paid their dues and are entitled some latitude. Many times journalists report first hand and do not need to cite their own experiences. However, when writing nonfiction and wanting the reader to believe you, you need to document. Another former journalist Kathryn Schultz published Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. She included fifty pages of notes for her four hundred page book. If she were to tell me something far fetched as truth, I would tend to believe her because I know she is meticulous in her work and presenting factual information. Even if I was unsure, I know I could check her source material.
Acid Test takes the reader through several decades of work in the field of hallucinogens as clinical drugs. It starts with background on mescaline and ergot, which will lead to LSD. Each decade in the book centers around a single person and their work in the field or as in the case of the Marine and sadly how he became involved in the process. The book covers early testing and treatments along with the fight with the DEA to remove Ecstasy from the Schedule I list. The book looks at the clinical and recreational use of these drugs in almost a plea to allow the medical professor access to these drugs.
I really do not know what to think of this book. The only part I could fully believe was Nick’s story, the Marine. The Marine Corps doesn’t change much over time still the same type of people, discipline, and attitude. To be honest it was the Marine’s story that kept me reading. The other parts of the book left me feeling like I was reading a script for a movie “based on a true story.” Perhaps Shroder’s work is diligently researched; I don’t know and can’t know. However, if this style of writing increases the number of people reading nonfiction and the authors demonstrate integrity in their work, maybe it could be a good thing.
What is destiny?
After you learn that governments lie and happiness
is undefinable and death has no patience,
you’ll understand me.
Meanwhile the ignorant but well informed will try to
keep you mute
as a shut book
And the Time is: Poems 1958-2013 by Samuel Hazo is a collection of poems spanning fifty-five years and chosen by the poet. Hazo is the author of over thirty collections of poetry, essays, plays, and fiction. He served in the United States Marine Corps from 1950-1957 and completed his time as a captain. He attended the University of Notre Dame , Duquesne University, and earned his doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh. Hazo was a National Book Award Finalist and the first State Poet of Pennsylvania (1993-2003). Currently, he is the director (and founder) of the International Poetry Forum in Pittsburgh and McAnulty Distinguished Professor of English, Emeritus, at Duquesne University.
And the time Is is the summation of over half a century of work, mostly printed in chronological order. A few of observations that seemed to jump out at me, are first, is Hazo service in the Marines. Although far removed from Quantico many of the poems contain military references and themes. From birds appearing to be at parade rest before a flight to, to the human loss, to the use of war as a tool of government are found throughout the collection. Being chronological work there seems to be some change in feeling as time goes by. Early on a veteran speaks, “I wear my flag on my heart, not on my sleeve.” Later, mentioning Pinochet “disappearing” his enemies yet still every Sunday receiving the body of God on a biscuit. The theme shows respect for the men and women who serve as soldier, sailors, and Marines, but a contempt for those who use them as tools.
Early on in the collection there was a prominent religious tone that fades as time progresses. At times it seems to turn against itself like Pinochet and the church. Religion, war, and violence in general seem to join forces: “Cain’s rock and rocket leave us nothing new to find. In North America the oldest skull’s a woman’s brained from behind.”
Some of the poetry captures memories. Hazo’s “My Roosevelt Coupe” took me back to the days of my Triumph Trophy 250 motorcycle. “Coax it, clutch it, kick it in the gas was every dawn’s scenario. Then off it bucked, backfiring down the block…. All trips were dares. Journeys were sagas. “ Other lines seem capture whole experiences in simple lines: “Let’s breathe like fishermen who sit alone together on a dock and let the wind do all the talking.”
Others capture bits of lives, the wisdom, and the observations gained by half a century of writing poetry:
“Before real frontiers passports are invalid.”
“The pilgrim in us has no fixed address. He roams. He takes us with him when he goes.”
“A Saudi wife, enrobed and cowled like a nun, passes a Cannaise in her isosceles and thong.”
And the time Is is an excellent collection and a look into how time changes our views. The observations are of his daily life and his views on the world around us: physical, political, and religious. Hazo also mentions one of my favorite writer/philosophers several times through his collection: Albert Camus. This anthology will be published in time for the poets 86th birthday and represents a lifetime of work. And the time Is will provide the reader with an introduction to the poets many other volumes of work. An outstanding collection.
“The spring and summer of 1914 were marked in Europe by an exceptional tranquility.”
The July Crisis: The World’s descent into War, Summer 1914 by Thomas Otte is the history of the events leading to the First World War. Otte is a professor of diplomatic and international history of the 19th and 20th century at the University of East Anglia. He has written books on diplomatic history and China, as well as publishing numerous essays in academic journals.
Earlier this year, I was fortunate enough to read and review Cambridge University Press’ Cambridge Honors the Centennial of World War I which featured an excerpt from this book. Otte takes a very detailed look at the events leading to the First World War. It starts with an unprecedented period of peace in Europe interrupted with an assassination in Serbia of the Archduke of a toothless Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The Emperor Franz Josef cut short his vacation on the news, only to continue it from his palace. He had little love for the archduke and his wife. The funeral was attended by immediate family, the officer corps was forbidden to salute the funeral train, and neither were buried in the imperial vault. The Emperor was not interested in war and was joined by the Prime Minister Tisza, however, Foreign Minister Berchtold and Chief of the Army Staff Conrad wanted an immediate and punitive war. No one in Europe wanted war except Austria-Hungary foreign minister and chief of staff.
Although no one wanted war, there was a sense of paranoia between the nations’ militaries. Although no one want to go to war, I received the strong impression that no one really wanted to stop the war either. With each power in each alliance looking at its interests and security there was no consensus. The alliances were different from the alliances of the cold war. The Warsaw Pact and NATO were entangling alliances. The difference was that individual members did not act out on their own. East Germany would not have invaded West Germany on its own initiative or even mobilized its forces on its own initiative. Alliances were controlled (at least in theory) by the will of all member nations. The alliances of World War I acted to drag an ally nation into war rather than prevent it.
No nation wanted to appear weak even though two were very weak at the time: Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Russia was beginning to modernize and war was not what it needed. France had come to accept the loss of Alsace Lorraine. Germany was a growing industrial power with no need of a war. England sat outside the alliances and examined its own interests. War would be detrimental. If Germany won, England would have a new neighbor across the channel challenging its supremacy at sea. If Germany lost, France and Russia would be suspicious England’s motives. Although relations with Germany were growing, perhaps England made its decision earlier. The invasion of neutral Belgium is cited as England’s reason to enter the war. Although bound by treaty to protect Belgium, there was no requirement for military action. Diplomatic condemnation would have been sufficient under the treaty. Germany although in an alliance to defend Austria-Hungary in the event of a Russian or French invasion was under no obligation to make war against France or Russia if Austria-Hungary decided to start a regional war.
It seems like history set up roadblocks to this war at every turn. Rather than stopping, countries ran through these roadblocks, not dead set on going to war, but almost a laziness to stop the war even with all the opportunities. World War I was a war that should not have been fought. There was opposition at every turn, yet despite the opposition, war came and change the world forever. Otte does an outstanding job of detailing the diplomatic and political road to war. Extensive use of footnotes and a wide selection of source, including primary source material make this the definitive study of the origins of World War I. The war was much more than an assassination and alliances. Otte takes the reader deep into the process that lead to war. A must read for diplomatic and political historians.
It was what Austria wanted, a great and mighty nation surging over a small country, the ruin of Serbia which it pursued systematically by steel, fire, by pillage and incendiarism in towns and villages, and also by extermination, by the massacre of the Serbian people.
Collisions of Empires: The War on the Eastern Front in 1914by Prit Butar is history of the first year of World War I from the little talked about eastern front. Butar is a graduate of Oxford in medicine and served in the British Army as a doctor. He has written two other historical books and a novel.
When asked about World War I most people with some history background will mention the the assassination of the Archduke in Serbia and Russia leaving the war. Almost everything else involves the the Western front: The German invasion, trench warfare, no man’s land, and the eventual German defeat. What is missing from most people’s understanding is that the country that started the war — Austria-Hungary, and the country that was the reason for the declaration of war — Serbia, are rarely mentioned after the assassination. Butar concentrates his effort or the Serbia, Russia, and Austria-Hungary (with the Germany concentrating its efforts to the west).
If anyone was expecting a short war it was Austria-Hungary. It was dead-set on punishing Serbia regardless of what the rest of the Europe wanted. Austria-Hungary was the pit bull with it teeth permanently locked on Serbia’s neck. The pit bull, however, had no teeth. Of the nations involved on the Eastern Front, only Serbia fared better than expected in the opening of the war.
One point that is mentioned Austria-Hungary itself. It claimed to be a great empire, but in reality it was not. It was two kingdoms with two different citizenships. Each was mostly independent in internal matters, but shared a common foreign and military policy. Austria-Hungary was made up of many nationalities with little common interest. Unlike Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary had no single dominant ethnic group. It is difficult for a nation to rally around a flag when everyone has their own flag. The Habsburg Empire was essentially held together by memories of their glory days. If the Ottoman Empire was “The sick old man of Europe”, Austria-Hungary was not far behind.
Collision of Empires is an excellent study on the mostly forgotten Eastern Front of World War I. Diplomacy, strategies, and the opening battles of the war are covered in this text. It is well researched and cited. This forgotten part of World War I is not only where the war started, but also the area most changed by the war. New countries were formed, empires fell, millions died, refugees crossed borders, and revolution began in Russia.Collision of Empires is a must read for any WWI historian or anyone with an interest in Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
The Romanov Sisters: The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas and Alexandria by Helen Rappaport is a comprehensive look at the last royal family of Russia. Rappaport attended Leeds University with the intention of joining the Foreign Office. She changed her mind and became an actress. She became a full-time writer in 1998 and has written several books on Russian history and Victorian history. Her work on Lenin caused a stir when she proposed that he died of syphilis rather than a stroke.
Growing up much of the late czarist history I read came from Massie’s Nicholas and Alexandria which by no means was lacking at the time. Research as an undergraduate came from mostly dated sources because little access by the Soviets limited research. The fall of the Soviet Union opened a wealth of new information from the former Soviet archives. My academic researching days were over by that time, but I still tried to keep up.
Two quick points. First, this is an excellent work of research and expands greatly on what I knew of the last Romanovs. Secondly, although there is a great information on the Romanov sisters, the book primarily focuses on the entire family and family life. The sisters do hold a much larger role than in any other source I have read.
Czarist Russia has always seemed to me as a twisted fairytale. When things seem at their best they crash to unbelievable lows. Society seemed caught up in superstition. While the world looked on to the births of four beautiful girls, the Russian population wondered why the German wife couldn’t produce an heir to the throne. When the sickly Alexei much was done to hide his illness. He was the center of domestic attention. The daughters grew up sheltered partly because of their unimportance and partly because of the social unrest. The unpopular, lost war against the Japanese and Bloody Sunday of 1905 did little to raise the czar’s standing with many.
Rappaport does an outstanding job of bringing to light the lives Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia. The daughters lives seem out of place and underrated in today’s world of royals. They were well behaved, very educated, volunteered in hospitals during the war, and sold handmade crafts raise money for charities. Although there was no doubt privilege, they lived a relatively frugal and simple life imposed on them by their mother. Their lives are examined as individuals rather than lumped together as one.
The writing is extremely well documented and much of the material comes from primary source materials: letters and diaries. The amount of personal information in included in this book is unprecedented. The children are portrayed as real people in history with many of the same questions and challenges growing up. I have read many history books over the years and this one did such an excellent job of bringing the daughters to life. I got so involved in the story, even knowing the historical outcome, I hoped that it would end differently. Even with all the tragedies in the world, wars, and other catastrophes, this history is truly sad. I really am at a loss to speak more highly of this book. Outstanding history and research.